From planes, radars and ships in the Baltics, NATO officials say they are watching Russia's biggest war games since 2013 with "calm and confidence", but many are unnerved about what they see as Moscow testing its ability to wage war against the West.
The Vostok-2018 drills involve around 300,000 troops, more than 1,000 aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles, up to 80 vessels, up to 36,000 tanks, armored personnel carriers, and other vehicles.
Shoigu has said they are the biggest since a Soviet military exercise, Zapad-81 (West-81) in 1981.
The start of the exercises coincided with a bilateral meeting between President Vladimir Putin and his Chinese counterpart President Xi Jinping at a forum in Valdivostok, where they vowed to fight attacks on their economies.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said the drills were compulsory to safeguard itself amid the present worldwide condition which is quite belligerent and antagonistic.
Russian Federation kicked off what it says are its largest war games since the fall of the Soviet Union on Tuesday, as it hosted a bilateral meeting between President Vladimir Putin and Chinese leader Xi Jinping in the far eastern city of Vladivostok.
Jack Watling, a research individual practicing in land warfare at London's Royal United Services Institute a defense think tank elucidated Vostok 2018 as an affirmation of force to some expanse.
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But Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said the latest exercises are even larger.
The Chinese media have described the People's Liberation Army involvement in the drills as the country's largest-ever dispatch of forces overseas for war games.
Russian Federation began its biggest war games since the fall of the Soviet Union on Tuesday close to its border with China, mobilising 300,000 troops in a show of force that will include joint exercises with the Chinese army. Moscow rallied almost 300,000 troops, over 1,000 aircraft, helicopters and drones, 36,000 tanks, and 80 warships and military vessels for the military drills.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and European governments are eyeing the exercises closely, watching to see what they reveal about military co-operation between Russian Federation and China, and their mounting military might.
That large-scale exercise, called the Zapad drills, involved nearly 13,000 troops.
Relations between Russian Federation and the West declined sharply in 2014 with Moscow's annexation of Crimea and the subsequent conflict in eastern Ukraine.
No doubt, both Russian Federation and China relish the opportunity of flexing military muscle just as U.S. threats are heating up and tensions are at boiling point over Syria, where both countries have condemned past American and Western military actions targeting the Assad government.