Hawaii Kilauea volcano could soon explode in once-in-a-century eruption

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The national park around the volcano announced that it would close because of the risks. Debris expelled during such explosions could impact the area surrounding Halemaʻumaʻu and the Kīlauea summit.

Zivile Roditis has spent the last week anxiously watching the Kilauea volcano, belching and churning molten lava into her neighborhood in Leilani Estates.

The Leilani Estates community remains in greatest danger, with 15 volcanic fissures so far having destroyed 36 structures, majority homes, and forcing the evacuation of about 2,000 residents. The Puna Geothermal Enterprise plant had about 50,000 gallons (189,270 liters) of pentane. "If you're near the crater within a half a mile or so, then you would be subject to a bombardment by ballistic blocks weighing as much as 10 or 12 tons", said Don Swanson, of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, according to hawaiinewsnow.com.

Puna Geothermal Venture could not be reached for comment Wednesday.

The receding lava lake resembles conditions seen before a major summit eruption in 1924, said Tina Neal, scientist-in-charge at the USGS Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory. The slope-sided Kilauea is the world's longest-erupting volcano and the youngest of five explosive peaks on the Big Island, including Mauna Loa, the world's largest shield volcano.

"What we've already been seeing is that chunks of the surrounding vents are just dropping off into the lava and that's why we're getting these small explosions", said Jessica Johnson, a volcanologist at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom.

A side effect of all these shifts is that a lava lake on the summit called Halema'uma'u has been draining like a bathtub; as of May 6, it had dropped 722 feet (220 meters), according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

"Because the lava intrusion is still active and earthquakes are still occurring, we still think there's a decent chance of new eruptive activity at the surface", Steven Brantley said.

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"You don't know where the next fissure is going to open up", he said. "Life and safety is what's most important". The images were taken on the East Rift Zone of the volcano, showing the fissures oozing lava and gas. Authorities went door-to-door in Lanipuna to get people out of their homes on Tuesday.

It's been simmering and bubbling for about 35 years, sending superhot hot lava spewing up through cracks in the ground.

In little more than a week, the top of the lava lake has gone from spilling over the crater to nearly 970 feet (295 meters) below the surface as of Thursday morning, Mandeville said.

"This is a huge change".

The concern is that it'll go beneath the underground water desk - one other 1,000 toes additional down - and that will set off a sequence of occasions that might result in a "very violent" steam explosion, Mandeville mentioned.

At the current rate of change, that is about six or seven days away. If the lava column drops to groundwater level, water could rush into the void and create large, steam-driven explosions.

Smaller (pebble-size) rocks could be sent several miles from Halemaumau, mostly downwind. The database's catchall "indirect" category also includes transportation accidents related to the eruption, heart attacks suffered during strenuous clean-ups after eruptions, and all manner of random misadventures that occur around volcanoes even when they're not actively erupting, like falling into steam vents and being caught in a lava bench collapse.

Rocks thrown up by a steam explosion are a big hazard. If another blast happens, the danger zone could extend about 5 kilometres around the summit, land all inside the national park, Mandeville said.

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